I've just been through all our 14 or so data cabinets. Anything that links to a switch in a classroom, or an uplink in the cabinet is RED. I then got a bit of electrical tape and a Sharpie and write whatever it is I need to on the tape, and wrap it round the cable like a flag. Also working in technical theatre, marking stuff up with electrical tape and a pen is second nature! It's very cheap, doesn't go sticky or flake like Sellotape, nor does it require any special printers!
At home i normally use some masking tape and do it like a flag like other people have suggested or find something hard like cardboard or a ice-cream container and cut it into rectangles, punch a hole in it and attach it via twine/freezer bag twist tie/zip tie/cable tie ect.
The only labelling I have done to our cables are done on the core switch itself (above the socket where it connects to) Couldnt get labels to stick to the cables plus we were changing connections too frequently for it to be any use! I've been lucky as now though since the majority of what was in place has been replaced through the building project so I have been able to colour code all of our cabinets:
Orange > Data
Yellow > POE Carrier
Blue > Data for POE Injector
Green > Uplink
Red > Printers (VLAN'd, although havnt done this one to any cabs yet)
Grey/White/Cream/others > Whatever else there is that needed doing and coulldnt find a cable long enough in the right colour:D
Each cabinet (as I'm getting round them) has a small 'ID sticker' on the frint pane showing what each colour means and an ID number for the cabinet. Thus all documentation refers to a cabinet by its ID rather than wording. I'm also sad enough to have a full school plan on the wall that has each room coloured to denote which cab serves it as well as the locations of the cabs themselves.
Theres many different ways of doing this, its up to you as to which way is best for your situation.
Yellow/grey - end terminal
Red - uplinks/servers
Blue - access points
Purple - voice
Pink - Ghost
Green - ISP side of the NAT
For our patch it is:
Blue - Switch to patch panel - Data (at some sites) and Data/VoIP Phone
Yellow - Switch to patch panel - Phone where the system is none VoIP except one site where phones are blue as well as data because Kingston Communications ordered the wrong cables and no one picked it up when they installed it.
Orange - Switch to patch panel - Printer, network scanner, or just data where VoIP system installed.
Black - Servers to switch.
Green - Router to firewall or switch depending on setup.
Red - Firewall to switch.
Grey - Switch to patch panel - MICC VoIP phones.
White - Fax line in most cases, all BT or Virgin sockets are installed to the cab and the patched via a RJ11 to RJ45 cable.
Don't think we have any other colours. We have got some 145 sites so all vary slightly although we have been trying to sort them out as we get to them.
Finally started using all the Sharpmark labels and software over the holidays and properly labelling a building that has 3 cabs but awful labelling. Impressed with the results, looks really professional.
As for colour coding - LOL...no chance here, we just have so many cabs and cables we'd have to buy thousands of the same colour cables. Even when I have tried to colour code certain cabs, thats always ruined when new points get added or things get moves around