Microsoft has not released this functionality for Office 365. Please do not try this at home.
Also regarding the old live@edu SSO kit, I found this very interesting.
Single sign-on - Upgrade to Office 365 - Office 365 - Microsoft Office 365 Community
Basically the old live@edu SSO kit has been extended until December 31, 2014 and modified to work with Office 365. BUT changes must be made to the SSO Toolkit to maintain single sign-on access. Just like they did back when the Legacy Live@edu SSO URL was shut down and people had to patch Live@Edu SSO with changes.
With respect to the first document - where did you get it? That is not our current guidance as far as I know, although as you've said it is targeted at partners rather than end customers.
The SSO Toolkit for Live@edu users is not for new deployments of Office 365, and will have an end-of-life.
I feel I have to be really clear about this, to avoid any unfair expectations: password sync is not currently supported for Office 365. The best, and supported, method is to use single sign-on through AD FS or Shibboleth. Any roadmap for password sync is just that, and you should avoid trying to hack a solution as this will not be supported.
I know that's blunt, but I don't want to mislead anyone. "What's coming", "what's possible" and "what's supported", are different things, and I wouldn't be doing my job properly if I recommended something that wasn't supported.
If it does work (supported or not), together with the new Live@edu SSO Toolkit for Office 365 we can finally have a smooth transition to Office365. Not exactly going to ring up Microsoft support if PCNS stop working! Worst case scenario is a reinstall of DirSync to put it back to the defaults to be supported.
Anyway RM Unify has PCNS and is based on Windows Azure Active Directory just like Office 365. So if a Partner like RM is allowed to do it why can’t Microsoft support PCNS for end users? It’s not fair :). If you know what you are doing why should we Pay people like RM for something we can do for free.
We are rebuilding the school domain and main internal server infrastructure this summer, so didn’t want ADFS as it could get knocked out at any point. But will move to ADFS after September. Just needed a solution for the interim and now have one!